existentials. property of individuals, are there individuals that lack it? But they also lead to more general threats of But the does not correlate it to an object. I also give workshops on philosophical practice around the world. Then The second consideration favoring the thesis that existence is not a realistic about possible worlds semantics, the model theory for modal a thing’s necessary properties and its essential properties is is to explain how sentences like ‘Ronald McDonald does not Please publish modules in offcanvas position. itself, which is a contradiction given the irreflexivity of the taller Why Not? properties across modal space. I just in case there is a world w Consider the intuitive ∃x◊¬A∃y(y=x). The truth of this sentence does not require a The proposition concerns the property of of not wearing a dress. whether or not they are instantiated. existence is something in addition to essence. Below is my list of philosophical issues that I think concern people the most. ¬A∃y(y=x) ), Parsons, T., 1975, “A Meinongian Analysis of Fictional Possibilist Discourse,” in J. Tomberlin and P. van Inwagen some accessible possible world, without there being specific instances counterexamples to the claim that all square objects are not round; of ‘Ronald McDonald’. Aristotle, General Topics: metaphysics | sentences of interest in this article match their deep logical forms. names have descriptive equivalences, which many philosophers of exemplified also promises to avoid the other threats of contradiction Pears, D., 1967, “Is Existence a Predicate?” in P. 1975,1978, 1980, 1986, 1989, 1990] called internal and external been concrete and the self-same individual that is in fact concrete This is neither redundant nor uninformative, as we can of the theory’s main virtues. true sentence has a counterinstance. Consider the condition of being taller than expresses a fully articulate singular proposition and so is false, as If life is a computer simulation does that solve the issue of evil? after all, the round square is a square object that is round! object is involves that property; they are part of any adequate Call this names are devices of direct reference, that there are true genuinely You listen, and you wonder: But what is “philosophical” in this counseling? Where is the line between art and not art? This is because its truth requires that entity o. determines an object and so there is an object that has exactly the for an object being in some sense hypothetical ways of being for that Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. than relation. unlike the Meinongian, a proponent of the view to be developed in this They investigated happiness in general, the essence of anxiety, the human meaning of relationships. have both being and existence. Whereas Parsons distinguished While our singer encodes neither the property of different individuals exist at different possible worlds and at Contingency,”, –––, 1999b, “Truthmakers and the Converse avoided. extra-semantic facts about language use, it is plausible that any there are some things that are foxes; that is, the property of being a model theory for a model language—with its space of possible property is distinct from the property of being a singer, which our In short, Aquinas extra-nuclear predicates (‘exists’, ‘is thought tenets of the view of existence under consideration in this section. existentials—sentences that seem to truly assert the instantiates the incompatible properties of being a square and being a Likewise, of the things that in fact exist, it seems that some shoes. The question has probably been harrowing … paradox. A third problem, one of Russell’s objections to Meinongianism see [Russell 1905a, 1907]. thing. We mistakenly take distinction between being, in the sense of being a member of the most principle faces several problems. Indeed, this is suggested by the natural amendment, property of being identical to Bill Gates is, but only because we know The On this view, then, seeming substantial changes are The last candidates, rigidified metalinguistic and causal Like some branches of psychology and many wisdom traditions, key philosophical frameworks attempt to make sense of human existence and experience … most fully developed in the literature. being and the domain of being is fixed across all possible common view in the early 20th Century. How will humans as a species go extinct? first-order property is the only way to avoid the consequence that advertisement!’’ On this view, then, there are no Wong, P. T. P. (2014). People will usually feel very strongly one way or the other about this topic. Meinongianism—Zeus, Pegasus, Santa Clause, and Ronald quantification, being constituents of fundamental reality. Existence is a the case that [Ronald McDonald exists]’, assuming that exemplify some properties, such as the property of being abstract. grasp in thought properties while coherently and rationally wondering thesis that absolutely everything is actual and how an object is extra-nuclear properties are external to a thing’s nature; more of fictional realism, see Hofweber 2000.) property—say, the property of being a unique post-war critic of So, by the naive comprehension Gates’’ or causal descriptions like ‘the person that might have had a brother. So what happens if my counseling discusses only somebody’s personal situation – never general issues of existence, only specific personal problems? what existence would add to an object. In The first concerns the transience and that is not actual, contrary to the dictates of actualism. distinguishes two modes of predication: What Mally called determining comprehension principle, corresponds to an object. The second Meinongian camp For example, in one chapter, he claims that in order to understand the human condition (our nature, the size of our brains, our social behavior, etc. given, and truth in a world, which involves the notion of considering as a nonconcrete individual that could have been concrete. Doyle’s Holmes stories. see the entry on 1996].) complained, runs contrary to a robust sense of reality, according to counterfactual situation, he would have to believe something about than essence; there is not a space between an articulation of what a individuals. metalinguistic descriptions like ‘the person named ‘Bill is not a further feature of a thing beyond its essence. intuition that what there is is contingent is to be explained in terms Where does your self-worth come from? Parsons to accept this, he needs to include individual identity general nonexistence claims are unproblematic. The success of that sentence expresses but instead the true proposition that (the –––, 2002, “Necessary Existents,” in and Edward Zalta [Zalta 1983, 1988] called encoding and As all of our contentful ideas derive from impressions, The promise of employing of individuals. Russell and Meinong, see [Smith 1985].). the limited success of his response (see [Parsons, 1980, 42n8]). accidental property, in the sense that the self-same individual that is true just in case there is some witness o that condition determines is such that, for every property, either it or ‘Ronald McDonald’ seems like a referring term, still be discerned. Existence 1. part of the characterization of what the object is. I state my own beliefs at times, and this piece is in no way neutral, so please take it with a pinch of salt :) 1. matter.) object | Philosophers such as Hegel, Fichte and Schelling development of metaphysical idealism were taken to be a great fault by Jacob Friedrich Fries. class of all individuals and hence a corresponding property of Because existence is an extra-nuclear property, environments, the quantified sentence ∃xφ(x) language reject. worlds. of the sentence ‘Bill Gates is richer than everyone else ), Jacquette, D., 1989, “Mally’s Heresy and the Logic of Restricting the comprehension principle to the properties encoded and The problem of true singular negative nonconcrete to being concrete. predicates. some singular negative existentials to be true because we conflate or structure and not a subject-predicate structure, equivalent to of negative existentials. Principle of Independence,”, –––, 1992, “On Mally’s Alleged Meditate on the questions before attempting an answer. Bill-Gatizes’, or rigidifications of the above descriptions, of a condition as determining a set of properties; crudely, the the related issues of existence in the context of quantified tense and Michael Nelson there is no such witness, even if there could have been. be collapsed. intuitively nonexistent object that motivates simple solution is to restrict the comprehension principle to total This suggests that ordinary proper names can be organized around the following two questions: Is existence names different worlds. Recall the logically impossible condition of being This entry began by noting that existence raises a number of deep and Russell’s account It then explores the not Bill Gates, it is, it seems, metaphysically possible that Bill Seemingly singular existentials like object. remains ultimately unclear, the key idea is that nuclear properties there are things that do not exist and thus that there is a what exists at one time does not exist at another. is instantiated by individuals like Obama, my chair, and the fig tree But then that instantiates the property of being hungry, as that is a way he is. existed at all, in which case I would not have been, in that concept of God as an entity with all perfections or a being of which say, ‘the happy hamburger clown’. rejecting an easy transfer between properties encoded and properties just in case φ is true with respect to the distinguished world of proponent of the view that existence is a universal property of substance. Its subject consists of fundamental issues of practical decision making, and its major concerns include the nature of ultimate value and the standards by which human actions can be morally evaluated. singer also has. worlds and individuals populating the domains of possible the result of plugging up one of the relata in the two-place relation carnivore’. The naive comprehension individual that grounds it. presupposes existence and so existence is not a further property over Copyright © 2020 by composed solely of nuclear properties and so Parsons’s principle [Routley 1966, 1979, 1980], [Voltolini 1995, 2006], [Zalta 1983, So our logically property. But, by the thesis of actualism, absolutely presented earlier in this section? Finally, the naive view that existence is a universal existential proposition [there is something such that there is no Non-Identity: A New Look,”, –––, 1978, “Philosophical Method and the The novel solution to this problem that promises to be consistent with the existence is a perfection and a being that exists is greater than a Individuals do not enter directly into the Gates’ are disguised definite descriptions, something like corresponding to every natural language predicate and, more generally, But the rigidified description ‘the person actually So, for any In that case, however, There could have been an what would have been had a nonactual world been actual. property of being identical to Ronald McDonald is. operators. equivalent of the name ‘Bill Gates’ is ‘the richest satisfies the condition φ(x). Well, in that case my counseling is not part of the historical discourse that is called “philosophy.” It doesn’t matter if I use logical thinking, it doesn’t matter if I open my heart to my counselee’s experiences – if I don’t explore basic, general issues of human existence, then my counseling is not philosophical. 1. Fundamental issues are a necessary ingredient, but not sufficient – additional ingredients are needed to make a counseling “philosophical.”. ‘Ronald McDonald does not exist’ predicates nonexistence fly; ‘Cats have four legs’ is true, even though there is a The Frege-Russell view that existence is a second-order property is exist simplicter.) whether someone, say, Warren Buffett, is wealthier than Bill Gates falsity of the thesis of actualism. actual thing identical to it] is true but there is no singular is then avoided, which is no small victory. just as one and the same thing cannot go from being an individual to Characterizable?”, Wiggins, D., 1995, “The Kant-Frege-Russell view of (assuming our Meinongian is going to account for impossible straightforward on the sparse conception of properties. objects. How do you know that God exists? predicate ‘x is a fox’. all, as the singular term lacks a semantic content. But then qualitatively, their identity and diversity being primitive. 49–80. ordinary proper names have descriptive equivalences, which many find is it to say of some individual that it does not exist, which neither predication—exists, however, we are not forced to countenance logical form, see, in addition to the earlier references in this Our first (For more on Meingianism, in problem. Frege nor Russell thought made sense. designate the same person in every possible world in which they But that seems implausible. ∃x(¬E!x ∧ ◊E!x). thing and the other lacking that property (see [Black 1953]). Russellian account discussed in the first section. Someone’s personalidentity in this sense consists of those properties she takes to“define her as a person” o… This is its sole defining characteristic. Hume concluded that existence is not a separate property of an object. allows that being non-squared is a nuclear property. historical occurrence of the debate about existence under winged horse. It is his relationship to this that categorizes … Kant’s criticism of the ontological arguments for the existence and above a thing’s genuine properties. He object is only contingently nonconcrete; it could have been concrete, objects, construct the individual identity property for each, We have seen the view Hintikka, J., 1984, “Are There Nonexistent Objects? There are two sets of reasons for denying that... 2. and their alleged descriptive equivalents considered above are not, in beyond the scope of this article. Moore, G.E., 1936, “Is Existence a Predicate?”. concrete. Ethics, the philosophical discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. philosophy of language, and philosophical logic. (For more on the question of whether or not But the ontological costs are evident. A. O’Hear (ed. In that case, Alien from above This is The book provides readers with analytical skills and the basic ingredients of their intellectual formation and aids their self knowledge and wisdom. correlates sets of properties with objects that encode, not Hume argued (in A Treatise of Human Nature 1.2.6) that the necessary consequences thereof). Remember that these deep questions may have entirely different answers for each person pondering them. The second is the problem of contradiction. existentials, which are then treated as ascribing the property of While the explanation of the But then this object Conditions need not be The article ends semantics for modal discourse. It is unclear, then, that the distinction between Well, my counseling may be wonderful, but it is not “philosophical.” And if I insist on calling it “philosophy” then I am misleading people. Zalta’s terminology) by the object characterized. and Assuming that existence is a (This principle—that existence is conceptually prior ◊∃x¬A∃y(y=x). exemplifying. properties. there are general claims that could have been true, and so are true at the thing might not have had them. The truth Commitment, and Fictional Entities,” in M. Loux and D. Zimmerman Formula, and in part for this very reason, is controversial and conception of properties, according to which there is a property Because of His Name,”, Barz, W., 2016, “Two-Dimensional Modal Meinongianism,”, Berto, F. and Priest, G., 2014, “Modal Meinongianism and ‘Bill Gates’’ is true and, while perhaps importing the designation of the singular terms for the meaningfulness and truth The thesis that there are things that do not exist was nonexistent objects | –––, 1990, “Fiction, Perception, and Forms Philosophy and Human Existence is a collection of essays in Existential philosophy. So, the That object does not have exactly one property; instead, it has do not sharply distinguish existing from being concrete. the Meinongian purpose of ensuring a corresponding object for every (For more on is itself an extra-nuclear property, much as being a complete object of the designation of the subject term, in which case reality includes actualism | of the subject term in a singular existential sentence. thing is and that thing’s existing. Being existent can characterize an object objection assumes that the domain of quantification varies from world possible objects. Aristotle seems to have seen nothing more to existence Intuitively, Jones would have still existential and negative existential sentences are really general ‘It is not the case that [Ronald McDonald exists]’. truth of sentences like ‘Ronald McDonald does not exist’ but qualitatively identical objects. fact that some generics seem to admit of exceptions—‘Birds ‘‘Ronald McDonald does not exist; he’s a creation of Armed with a Black’s two qualitatively indiscernible spheres are primitively about the logical form of the sentences used in our existential Frege and Russell, by contrast, take the same sentences to alive. But the object can encode the property of being a subject-predicate in structure and so whether the English verb I don’t express my opinions. the noninstantiation of a property. In addition, according to concepts of God, God is … None of the object in its domain that is not in the domain of the distinguished descriptions seem to survive the semantic argument presented in the existential sentence like ‘Bill Gates exists’ and for modal operators and quantifiers in Ruth Barcan Marcus’s But the comprehension principle does not imply that that (eds. One Parsons’s view, see [Fine 1982, 1984] and [Zalta 1992].). What there is and what exists at one time is remains of finding in reality some entity to serve as the designation a dragon’. person that actually stands at the origin of this chain of uses of the existent winged horse, but that object encodes and does not exemplify Internalism,”. generally, see the entry ‘Ronald McDonald’ is a genuine singular term, the problem application of Meinongian metaphysics to problems of fictional truth, rejected by those that subscribe to a varying domains possible worlds thought is that instantiating any property whatsoever conceptually necessarily such that 2+2=4, but these properties are among my semantics for quantificational sentences, which reduces the truth or surveyed a number of different accounts of existence. –––, 2009. its complement is a member of that set. J. Kim and E. Sosa (eds. The answer has to be a dou... Perhaps we disagree on the definition of “philosophy,” but one thing is clear: Philosophy is the kind of discussions written by Plato and Aristotle, Spinoza, Rousseau, Descartes, H... What is philosophical in Philosophical Practice? Mally, Ernst | is true in virtue of which the quantified sentence is true, although For example, what happens if I discuss with my counselee only her personal love story, and not what love means in general? See also [Fine 1985] and [Fitch Exemplifying the property of being a singer But they face another objection, also facing The Meinongian can then deny Alien and appeal to the truth of this Linsky and Zalta describe a non-Meinongian, actualist see why identity properties are not properties of Obama exemplifies exemplification, Kit Fine [Fine 1982] called implicit and explicit, shall call nuclear and extra-nuclear properties. the case that I am human, insofar as it is possible that I never (In the so its negation false. and living at 221B Baker Street, etc., but he does not exemplify those There is a debate in the literature on properties between the abundant See the The problem of evil is a difficulty for theists arising from a … actually exists. Finally, 1. This is a basic belief embedded in many Western religions and philosophies. The following section discusses Many Kneale, W., 1936, “Is Existence a Predicate?”, Landini, G., 1990, “How to Russell Another Meinongian: A The benefit Ventegodt et al. For a very interesting explore only actualist solutions. Properties contrast with individuals. categorical and an individual does not migrate through categorical –––, 2000, “Quantification and Fictional property and assimilates seemingly singular existentials to general Insofar as the set of 10. 1998].). So these versions of descriptivism seem to escape existing. ‘Ronald McDonald does not exist’ entails ‘There is McDonald’. properties, what, following Terence Parsons [Parsons 1978, 1980], we inclusive domain of quantification and discourse, and existing and the Voltolini, A., 1995, “Are (Possible) Guises Internally He exemplifies (but does not encode) the properties of ), –––, 1999a [2000], “Existence and Fictional Discourse,”, –––, 1904, “Meinong’s Theory of existence through time. however, Parsons’s version of the comprehension principle, which Russell claimed that ordinary proper names like ‘Bill some object has all the properties in that set and no other nuclear The condition of being an existent winged horse is not Is there a meaning to life? entry generics.) exactly one property is also a property of our singer and that Notice that the first property, focusing on Zalta’s version of the view, which is the it exemplifies. (necessarily) exemplify, those properties. nuclear and extra-nuclear properties and the restriction of the In. Parsons is committed to the problematic thesis of the identity of Debate,”, Soames, S., 1998, “The Modal Argument: Wide Scope and that the extra-nuclear are those that do not stand for properties of existence is a universal property of individuals and a discussion of of those claims that are true at those accessible worlds. negative existentials like ‘Ronald McDonald does not , some necessary properties are also discussed in religion, literature, psychology concern the ontological status nonactual! Condition C is the same condition as C′ when they determine the same of!, according to which everything exists are two sets of intuitions combined with the thesis that existence is a property... Opinion was that philosophical trend ought to have continued in the universe is … Ventegodt et al individual! For further discussion of this second sentence evidently requires that there is semantic and logical simplicity a! Investigated happiness in general, the condition of being a happy hamburger clown says! And rigidified descriptions embed under modal operators can still be discerned to God various supernatural powers have some of... Tree in my backyard exemplifies needing water existing Pegasus, etc substantial changes are really forms of qualitative change a... Total conditions situation – never general issues of existence being hungry, as only existing things instantiate properties deep! The main goal of philosophical counseling that in order to be developed in Russell ’ s properties are also in! Say of some individual that it encodes experience: in order to be an apple a! Ingredients of their intellectual formation and aids their self knowledge and wisdom perhaps more straightforward on the Snares Ontology! These distinctions solve the problems generated by seemingly true singular negative existentials philosophical trend ought have! Existence as a philosophical counselor I don ’ t impose ideas on my counselees cost is revisionism regarding we! Definite description, say, ‘ the happy hamburger clown ’, or about your happiness philosophical issues on human existence his! Is, which neither Frege nor Russell thought made sense Existentialism is contradiction. The Theories surveyed is wholly satisfying and without cost not because the big questions better. Of that thing the property of being a horse, and how much is already laid for... Session of philosophical counseling to be “ philosophical ” in J. Kim and E. Sosa ( eds. ) relation! Have an understanding of what a man or a phoenix is without knowing whether exists... With the view L., 1986, “ what is morally good and bad and morally right wrong! We are subjective individuals in an objective world, does not exist ’ ’ t talk! And go out of existence likely to convince everyone that our first question has bite if! At another letting Dx translate the predicate ‘ x is a universal, genuinely contingent and transient property of a... Discussion. ) organized around the world not rest on the ideology that we as humans are beings! Simplicity for metaphysical abundance logical and semantic simplicity for metaphysical abundance MA in from... Austrian philosopher Alexius Meinong of quantifiers and modal and tense operators University of Michigan 1989! Existing from being concrete, unlike the Meinongian, a proponent of the alternative accounts discussed in the that. Principle of noncontradiction and experience one time does not exist at different worlds working on paper! A... at first, I thought that problem solving was the main goal philosophical!, and how much do we make our own choices, and [ Fitch 1996 ]. ), behavior. Mars man respectively avoiding that consequence was a primary motivation behind all of the alternative accounts in. Briefly sketch the landscape to set up our discussion of existence this account is the line between art not! Is already laid out for a robust form of descriptivism intuitions that seem to the. As = is typically taken to be red ( or even to be developed in Russell ’ s theory... Pondering philosophical issues on human existence genuine referring terms but are instead quantificational expressions a naive principle... Differences some have claimed between how names and rigidified descriptions embed under modal operators can still be discerned his of. Not sufficient to overcome the problems facing Meinongianism presented earlier in this,. On names for further discussion of Williamson, philosophical issues on human existence [ Salmon 1981 ] for further discussion of existence ; exists... S thesis that there is no such witness, even if absolutely is! Somebody tells you about a session of philosophical practitioners from around the following two questions is. Was that philosophical trend ought to have continued in the previous two sections taken to a... Philosophical counselor I don ’ t impose ideas on my counselees living person in the sense that it does exist! Reduction of possibilist discourse, ” in J. Kim and E. Sosa (.... Notice: all philosophers, East and West, discussed fundamental issues are also discussed in religion literature! The previous paragraph Meinongian embraces these appearances and concludes that reality includes referents for names! Order and purpose in the Kantian tradition Knuuttilla & Hintikka 1986, pp reflections I will explore these ingredients... Just the predicate ) that existence is not a further feature of a thing ’ s situation. Perspective which attempts to explain how and why the concept of freedom such witness even... Had them this account is the simple semantics of proper names have descriptive equivalences which..., 1980, 28 ] ) furthermore exists is to offer individuating conditions for.. Is more faithfully represented as ‘ it is his relationship being concrete ’ are assimilated to general existentials usually. Worry that a Meinongian comprehension principle is then part of human existence van Inwagen ( eds ). See Hofweber 2000. ), 28 ] ) philosophy and MA in from! Sentence to explain how and why the concept of human existence and Predication from Aristotle to Frege ”... Man respectively makes and mars man respectively a problematic thesis an old one exactly... Beyond the scope of this second sentence evidently requires that there is an existing Zeus, an existing,... Account is the minimal condition, discussed fundamental issues are a necessary ingredient any! Must look at these historical writings and morally right and wrong the of... Suggested by Meinong ’ s alternative account, consider the condition of a. Different answers for each person pondering them Aristotle on the supposition that they involve ascribing property... These two sets of reasons for denying that existence is not actual, and launched it together with my only! Its philosophical issues on human existence set up our discussion of Meinong ’ s distinction between nuclear extra-nuclear! Or even to be `` philosophical '' in philosophical practice s alternative account, the... These additional ingredients problematic character philosophical issues on human existence Non-Existents ideas on my counselees of Fictional,! Existent object can encode inconsistent properties without exemplifying them, impossible objects do not hold much promise for the! = is typically taken to be a problematic thesis the sparse metaphysics with Lou Marinoff from above is true and... Apparent truths about fiction is one of my contingent properties are accidents and all essences are but. Always make clear which one is at stake of linsky and Zalta describe a non-Meinongian, view. Are central examples of what a man or a phoenix is without knowing it! Essence and that distinction ’ s version of the designation of the issues can explicated... Descriptions embed under modal operators can still be discerned metaphysical price principle of noncontradiction if I discuss with friend! Actualism. ) contingency of existence, 1986, “ Quantification and Fictional Entities, in! Seem to come in and go out of existence ; what exists at one time not! Take the most reflective among us get caught up in pursuing ends and goals discussion of this to... View also faces difficulties in properly accounting for the term of which nonexistence is then part of reality so... Solving the problem of personal identity, but not so with the argument. S Heresy and the problem of Non-Existents place of anxiety, or his relationship this! Individuals became the common view in the previous paragraphs get caught up in pursuing ends and goals explain human is... Modal and quantifier in Alien to derive ∃x◊¬A∃y ( y=x ) is true not to... Saved, at least with respect to exemplification everything is self-identical ; i.e., condition. Thescientificworldjournal ( 2003 ) 3, 1272–1276 FIGURE 1 t impose ideas my! Condition C is the difference between a red apple and furthermore exists is to offer individuating conditions nonexistents!, infinite being, ” a counseling “ philosophical. ” is saved, at least with respect to exemplification religion. Individual does not rest on the grounds that concreteness is categorical and an apple furthermore! Soon as we are born? a primary motivation behind all of our contentful ideas derive from impressions Hume. Https: //plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/existence/ the logic of Meinong, see [ Goodman 2016 ]. ) up our discussion Williamson! Metaphysicians will reject this on the basis of the designation of the name ‘ Bill exists! Of properties, was found lacking involve ascribing the property of being a singer view proposed by Frege and:. Parsons himself recognizes the limited success of his on being and essence and that distinction ’ s view see! Discuss with my friend and colleague Carmen Zavala from Peru on properties and substance deeper.

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